Home

Virgil æneid

The Aeneid (/ ɪ ˈ n iː ɪ d / ih-NEE-id; Latin: Aeneis [ae̯ˈneːɪs]) is a Latin epic poem, written by Virgil between 29 and 19 BC, that tells the legendary story of Aeneas, a Trojan who travelled to Italy, where he became the ancestor of the Romans.It comprises 9,896 lines in dactylic hexameter. The first six of the poem's twelve books tell the story of Aeneas's wanderings from Troy to. P. VERGILIVS MARO (70 - 19 B.C.) AENEID. Aeneid I: Aeneid II: Aeneid III: Aeneid IV: Aeneid V: Aeneid VI: Aeneid VII: Aeneid VII

The Aeneid is an epic poem by Virgil that was first published around 19BC. Summary Read a Plot Overview of the entire book or a chapter by chapter Summary and Analysis Virgil worked on the Aeneid during the last eleven years of his life (29-19 BC), commissioned, according to Propertius, by Augustus. The epic poem consists of 12 books in dactylic hexameter verse which describe the journey of Aeneas , a warrior fleeing the sack of Troy, to Italy, his battle with the Italian prince Turnus, and the foundation of a city from which Rome would emerge Aeneid, Latin epic poem written from about 30 to 19 bce by the Roman poet Virgil. Composed in hexameters, about 60 lines of which were left unfinished at his death, the Aeneid incorporates the various legends of Aeneas and makes him the founder of Roman greatness. The work is organized into 1 Publius Vergilius Maro, alminnelig kjent som Vergil, engelsk Virgil (født 15. oktober 70 f.Kr., død 21. september 19 f.Kr.) var en romersk poet i antikken under Augustus' periode. Han skrev tre av de mest kjente diktene i latinsk litteratur, alle på heksameter: Bucolica (også kjent under navnet Eclogæ); Georgica; og det store episke verket Æneiden Virgil's epic poem The Aeneid documents the founding of Rome by a Trojan hero. As with other ancient epics, our hero has to remain resolute in the face of significant divine hostility

Aeneid - Wikipedi

The Aeneid By Virgil Written 19 B.C.E Translated by John Dryden : Table of Contents Book I : Arms, and the man I sing, who, forc'd by fate, And haughty Juno's unrelenting hate, Expell'd and exil'd, left the Trojan shore. Long labors, both by sea and land, he bore Links to Vergil sources of all sorts from the Classics Department of the University of Pennsylvania

Vergil - The Latin Librar

  1. In 19 BC, the Roman poet Virgil suffered heatstroke and died on his journey back to Italy. On his deathbed, he thought about the manuscript he had been working on for over ten years, an epic poem.
  2. Aeneas tells how Troy fell to the Greeks on the night they invaded it by means of a wooden horse. Among other incidents, he describes the murder of Troy's King Priam by the Greek warrior Pyrrhus; the death of his own wife, Creusa; and his own escape with his father, Anchises, his son, Ascanius, and a band of fellow warriors
  3. Æneis = Aeneid, Virgil The Aeneid is a Latin epic poem, written by Virgil between 29 and 19 BC, that tells the legendary story of Aeneas, a Trojan who travelled to Italy, where he became the ancestor of the Romans. The first six of the poem's twelve books tell the story of Aeneas's wanderings from Troy to Italy, and the poem's second half tells of the Trojans' ultimately victorious war upon.

SparkNotes: The Aeneid: Study Guid

Virgil, Roman poet, best known for his national epic, the Aeneid (from c. 30 BCE; unfinished at his death), which tells the story of Rome's legendary founder and proclaims the Roman mission to civilize the world under divine guidance. Learn more about Virgil's life and works in this article In both theme and placement, Book VI, which many consider to be Virgil's greatest literary accomplishment, is of central importance to the development and the ultimate meaning of the Aeneid. Here, just after the Trojans land permanently in Italy, Aeneas descends to the underworld for his long-anticipated rendezvous with Anchises's ghost, who reveals Rome's future to his son Virgil's The Aeneid explained with book summaries in just a few minutes! Course Hero Literature Instructor Russell Jaffe explains the plot, characters, symbols, and themes of Virgil's poem The. Virgil (Vergil) wrote The Aeneid, a story about a Trojan hero.The Aeneid has been compared with Homer's Iliad and Odyssey -- partly because Virgil was influenced by and borrowed from Homer's works.Written by one of the earliest great poets, The Aeneid has inspired a number of the greatest writers and poets in world literature. Here are a few quotes from The Aeneid Vergil. Bucolics, Aeneid, and Georgics Of Vergil. J. B. Greenough. Boston. Ginn & Co. 1900. The National Endowment for the Humanities provided support for entering this text. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 United States License. An XML.

Virgil - Wikipedi

  1. Virgil's Last Wish: Right before Virgil died, he demanded that the unfinished manuscript of the Aeneid be burned. Fortunately, Augustus ignored this, and the version we have of the Aeneid , despite its occasional unfinished lines, has not undergone any significant post-Virgil editing
  2. ent poet of the Roman Empire. It was his final work and the twelve books of the poem occupied him for about ten years from 29 BCE until his death in 19 BCE
  3. CONTENTS Book I 11 Book II 36 Book III 62 Book IV 82 Book V 110 Book VI 132 Book VII 157 Book VIII 181 Book IX 203 Book X 22
  4. The Aeneid is a Latin epic written by Virgil in the 1st century BC that tells the legendary story of Aeneas, a Trojan who traveled to Italy, where he became the ancestor of the Romans. The first six of the poem's twelve books tell the story of Aeneas' wanderings from Troy to Italy,.

Publius Vergilius Maro (70-19 B.C.), known as Virgil, was born near Mantua in the last days of the Roman Republic.In his comparatively short life he became the supreme poet of his age, whose Aeneid gave the Romans a great national epic equal to the Greeks', celebrating their city's origins and the creation of their empire.Virgil is also credited with authoring two other major works of. Virgil's Aeneid XI is an important, yet sometimes overlooked, book which covers the funerals following the fierce fighting in Book X and a council of the Latins before they and the Trojans resume battle after the end of the truce

Aeneid epic by Virgil Britannic

Vergil - Wikipedi

Lib

Aeneas's journey to the underworld in Book VI is another of the Aeneid's most famous passages. In fact, this passage helped raise Virgil to the status of a Christian prophet in the Middle Ages. In the fourteenth century, the Italian poet Dante used it as the foundation for his journey through hell in the Inferno, even though Virgil's version of the afterlife was obviously not a Christian. The Aeneid, written by the Roman poet Virgil (70-19 BCE), is a twelve-book-long epic poem that describes the early mythology of the founding of Rome.The eponymous hero Aeneas, a Trojan prince and son of Venus, faces trials and tribulations as he escapes Troy as it burns and sails the Mediterranean searching for a new home. Virgil spent the last ten years of his life writing the Aeneid, only to.

Guide to the Classics: Virgil's Aeneid

  1. The Aeneid Introduction. Today, when we think of ancient epic poems (OK, maybe if we think of ancient epic poems - but we at Shmoop mean to change that), we tend to think of the big three: the Iliad and the Odyssey by Homer, and the Aeneid by Virgil.There are some obvious reasons why we group these three poems together
  2. P. VERGILI MARONIS AENEIDOS LIBER PRIMVS. Arma virumque canō, Trōiae quī prīmus ab ōrīs Ītaliam, fātō profugus, Lāvīniaque vēnit lītora, multum ille et terrīs iactātus et alt
  3. Vergil Aeneid 1 1-7 Hi there. Login or signup free. Book 1 Book 2 Book 3 Book 4 Book 5 Book 6 Book 7 Book 8 Book 9 Book 10 Book 11 Book 12. 1-7 8-11 12-33 34-49 50-64 65-75 76-80 81-91 92-101 102-123 124-131 132-141 142-156 157-179 180-197 198-207 208-222 223-253 254-296 297-304.
  4. VIRGIL was a Latin poet who flourished in Rome in the C1st B.C. during the reign of the Emperor Augustus. His works include the Aeneid, an twelve book epic describing the founding of Latium by the Trojan hero Aeneas, and two pastoral poems--Eclogues and Georgics.. Virgil. Eclogues, Georgics, Aeneid
  5. The central text in the canon of Latin literature is Virgil's Aeneid, an epic poem in twelve books composed more than two thousand years ago under the Roman emperor Augustus. The poem was an instant hit. It became a school text immediately and has remained central to studies of Roman culture to..
  6. Aeneis oder veraltet Äneide ist ein Epos, das der lateinische Dichter Vergil (70-19 v. Chr.) auf der Grundlage insbesondere der Homer zugeschriebenen Ilias und Odyssee gestaltete.. Es schildert die Flucht des mythologischen Aeneas aus dem brennenden Troja und seine Irrfahrten, die ihn schließlich nach Latium (heutiges Mittelitalien) führen, wo er zum Stammvater der Römer wird
  7. 3 Roman values in the Aeneid. Now that you know a bit more about what happens in the Aeneid, we can turn to look at some passages from the poem in more detail.The activities here will show you how Virgil uses the figure of Aeneas to explore Roman values, and to think about what it takes to be a good Roman

Virgil's last work was the 'Aeneid', an epic poem in 12 books which looks back to Homer's two epic poems the 'Odyssey' and the 'Iliad', of the eighth century BC About this Course. In this course, Professor Llewelyn Morgan (University of Oxford) explores Virgil's Aeneid. In the first module, we think about the theme of the city in the poem, focusing in particular on the centrality of the city of Carthage, the use of both castra ('camp') and urbs ('city') to describe the Trojan camp in Italy, and the fact that the poem seems as interested in the. Virgil: The first six books of Virgil's Aeneid : with explanatory notes, a lexicon, and map : together with an appendix containing Dr. S.H. Taylor's questions on Virgil, and a metrical index : illustrated with numerous engravings, and a fac-simile page of one of the oldest existing manuscripts of the Latin text / (New York : A.S. Barnes & Company, 1869), also by Edward Searing (page images at.

VIRGIL, Aeneid Loeb Classical Librar

Virgil's seminal epic, the Aeneid, tells the story of Aeneas's journey in search of the land where he is destined to build the city that will one day become the great Roman Empire. Largely influenced by Homer's Odyssey and Iliad, the Aeneid begins halfway through Aeneas's journey, as he nears the city of Carthage, ruled over by Dido, who built the city after fleeing from her murderous brother Aeneid synonyms, Aeneid pronunciation, Aeneid translation, English dictionary definition of Aeneid. n an epic poem in Latin by Virgil relating the experiences of Aeneas after the fall of Troy, written chiefly to provide an illustrious historical background.. The Aeneid (Latin: Aeneis) is an epic poem written by Virgil between 29 and 19 BC.It tells the story of pious Aeneas.. Aeneas is a Trojan warrior who had to leave his city because the Greeks captured Troy after a long war. It starts with Aeneas carrying his father Anchises out of the burning Troy.It ends with Aeneas landing on the shores of Italy, fighting in the region of Rome Virgil's Aeneid A brief summary and guide. Translations of books 1,2,4 & 6 are available on the site. Book 1. In Aeneid Book 1, Aeneas is shipwrecked on the coast of North Africa, near where Dido, the young Phoenician queen - herself a refugee from her homeland - is building a city which will become Carthage.Aeneas, who had escaped death when Troy fell to the Greeks, has been wandering in.

The name used most often by Virgil for the Greeks, and least often by Homer (Austin). quaeque: and (the things) which; the antecedent, ea understood, is in the same construction as dolōrem (Frieze). Quae and quōrum (line 6) are relative, not interrogative, pronouns, hence the change of mood Virgil worked on The Aeneid for the rest of his life. In 19 BC, planning to spend a further three years on his poem, he set out for Greece. He caught a fever on the voyage and returned to Italy

Virgil (70 BC-19 BC) - Aeneid: I - Poetry In Translatio

Introducing Virgil's Aeneid 2 A brief summary of the Aeneid The poem opens with the Trojan fleet sailing towards Italy, when they are shipwrecked by a storm on the coast of north Africa, caused by Juno, queen of the gods, who hates them and is trying to prevent them reaching Italy and fulfilling their destiny Throughout the Aeneid Vergil sets his Roman theme in tension with the heroic world of Homer; Aeneas has to leave the one world and enter the other (Williams). primus: first, not here in the sense of the first who, but at the first, in the beginning (Frieze) It is the Aeneid, an epic poem in 12 books that its author, Virgil, left unfinished at his death in 19BC. It is a story of identity and anxiety about nationhood

Virgil's Aeneid as Roman Propaganda Rome was experiencing a great deal of internal turmoil during the period when Virgil wrote the Aeneid. There was somewhat of an identity crisis in Rome as it had no definitive leader, or history. With the ascension of Augustus to the throne, Rome was unified again. Still, it had no great book Virgil's poems, especially the Aeneid, have lived on for over 2,000 years and are still being read and analyzed to this day. Excerpts of his poems were even found on the excavated walls of Pompeii. He was an inspiration to countless authors who followed him Virgil: Aeneid Book XII. Free access to HTML textbooks is now available again and is being offered direct to Higher Education institutions. Access will be automatic if your institution has been given access. If you don't have access, details for librarians to action are available on this page Aeneid. iam pridem invisus divis et inutilis annos demoror, ex quo me divum pater atque hominum rex fulminis adflavit ventis et contigit igni.' 650 Talia perstabat memorans fixusque manebat. nos contra effusi lacrimis coniunxque Creusa Ascaniusque omnisque domus, ne vertere secum cuncta pater fatoque urgenti incumbere vellet. abnegat inceptoque et sedibus haeret in isdem. 655 rursus in.

Vergil - Store norske leksiko

The Internet Classics Archive The Aeneid by Virgil

Virgil had published other, shorter works before the Aeneid, but it's no accident that the epic was a magnet for the fingers of the great and powerful who played the sortes vergilianae Virgil. In his epic poem The Aeneid, Virgil recounted the Trojan warrior Aeneas's journey to Italy, where his descendants Romulus and Remus would found the city of Rome.. Always on the left of the composition, Virgil wears a laureate's wreath and white toga. Grasping his unfurled manuscript of the Aeneid, he pauses mid-sentence after reading a line from Book VI that recalls an encounter.

The Georgics · The Classic Text · Digital Exhibits - UWM

‎The central text in the canon of Latin literature is Virgil's Aeneid, an epic poem in twelve books composed more than two thousand years ago under the Roman emperor Augustus. The poem was an instant hit. It became a school text immediately and has remained central to studies of Roman culture to th Virgil's aeneid synonyms, Virgil's aeneid pronunciation, Virgil's aeneid translation, English dictionary definition of Virgil's aeneid. n an epic poem in Latin by Virgil relating the experiences of Aeneas after the fall of Troy, written chiefly to provide an illustrious historical background..

Virgil - Ancient History Encyclopedia

Epic Poetry. The Aeneid is an epic because is a long poem recounting the actions of men, gods, and heroes. Like the Greek epics on which it is modeled, the Aeneid uses the poetic meter of dactylic hexameter. (You can read more about this in our section on Writing Style.) As a writer of epic, Virgil was an innovator; before him, epic was thought of as purely telling stories of the distant. Publius Vergilius Maro was a classical Roman poet, best known for three major works—the Bucolics (or Eclogues), the Georgics, and the Aeneid—although several minor poems are also attributed to him. The son of a farmer in northern Italy, Virgil came to be regarded as one of Rome's greatest poets; his Aeneid as Rome's national epic.Over the past 300 years, much of Virgil's long-standard. The grandest image of Virgil's Aeneid is the shield forged by the god Vulcan in the eighth book of Aeneas' adventure to Lavinian shores and Italian soil. Virgil pays homage to Homer, his master and mentor, who also describes a grand image on a shield forged by the gods for Achilles 1 I sing of arms and a man, who first from the boundaries of Troy, exiled by fate, came to Italy and the Lavinian shores - he was tossed much both on land and on sea, by the power of the gods, on account of the mindful anger of savage Juno, he having suffered many (things) and also from war, until he could found a city, and was bringing in the gods to Latium, from whence [came] the race of.

With The Aeneid of Virgil, Professor Elizabeth Vandiver has crafted a masterful presentation on the great national epic of ancient Rome and one of the most important works of literature ever written. Join Aeneas on his long journey west from ruined Troy to the founding of a new nation in Italy, and see how the author Virgil weaves together a rich network of compelling human themes on duty. Synopsis. Virgil was a famed Roman poet born on October 15, 70 B.C. in Italy. His last and most notable work was the epic poem the Aeneid, where he strove to exemplify what he positioned as Rome. The Aeneid is the great national epic of ancient Rome, and one of the most important works of literature ever written. And with Professor Vandiver's 12 instructive lectures, you'll enter fully into the gripping tale that Virgil tells. Join Aeneas on his long journey west from ruined Troy to the founding of a new nation in Italy, and see how he weaves a rich network of compelling human themes This isn't Odysseus, it's Aeneas and in that vision Virgil gives an image of the very first Romans of the Empire.Virgil's Aeneid was the great epic poem that formed a founding narrative of Rome For the rest of his life Vergil worked on the Aeneid, a national epic honoring Rome and foretelling prosperity to come. The adventures of Aeneas are unquestionably one of the greatest long poems in world literature. Vergil made Aeneas the paragon of the most revered Roman virtues—devotion to family, loyalty to the state, and piety

The Vergil Projec

This bounced around a bit on some blogs last month, but we thought it was worth sharing. It's the story of Aeneas' journey toward founding Rome, told via Facebook status updates. Brilliant Vergil: Aeneid 1, 1-123 Scansion Scansio The Aeneid was written during the reign of Emperor Augustus, and penned between the years of 29 and 19 BC.It is normally split into two sections-the first deals with Aeneas' journey, and the next deals with a full-scale war. Virgil, according to scholars, wrote The Aeneid to rival Homer's works, but this is not confirmed. What is confirmed though, is the fact that the people of Ancient Rome.

Why should you read Virgil's Aeneid? - Mark Robinson

Synopsis Follow Aeneid as he flees a burning Troy with his family and sets out on a dangerous journey to found what will one day become The Roman Empire. Thrill with him as he gets caught up in conflicts between the gods, all the while striving to complete his own grand destiny. Virgil. In twenty years of talking about Virgil's Aeneid it's hit me that most people don't get the weirdest thing about it. What I mean is, it takes place in a time warp. Fred Ahl, my colleague. Last week we reached book five of Virgil's Aeneid. This week we cover Book six and explore the underworld. We also start reading 'Ovid'. This is the last week of lectures on the coursera course from The University of Pennsylvania. I have separated the lectures on the Aeneid and Ovid. These are my course note He gave Virgil a house near Naples. Between 42 and 37 B.C.E. Virgil composed pastoral poems known as Bucolic or Eclogues and spent years on the Georgics. The rest of his life, from 30 to 19 B.C., Virgil devoted to The Aeneid, the national epic of Rome, and the glory of the Empire. Although ambitious, Virgil was never really happy about the task

Christopher Pitt - Wikisource, the free online libraryHistory of the Reign of Ferdinand and Isabella the

Aeneid - CliffsNote

An industrious, meticulous writer, Virgil was not prolific. In addition to the ten Eclogues, which apparently took at least five years to publish, Virgil wrote the four Georgics, which took seven years, and the Aeneid, his great masterwork. Virgil worked on the Aeneid for eleven years, until his death in 19 BC THE AENEID BY VIRGIL . TRANSLATED BY JOHN DRYDEN . Edited, Annotated, and Compiled by Rhonda L. Kelley . All pictures are from Wikimedia Commons, unless otherwise annotated . FIGURE 1 VIRGIL READING THE AENEID TO AUGUSTUS AND OCTAVIA, JEAN- JOSEPH TAILLASSON, 1787. Virgil wrote the Aeneid at the instruction of the Emperor Augustus, would he really dare to write something that so utterly undermines the Roman achievement? And it is perhaps important to note that Augustus, who was by no means stupid, was a huge fan of the Aeneid and made it an instant classic Cassandra in The Aeneid II Virgil. Book Two of Virgil's Aeneid, the recounting of the Greek's infiltration of Troy and the following battle, possesses a certain air of doom from the start.As soon as the reader notices the horse of mountainous size [1], The Trojan horse's reputation precedes itself and the text instills a sense of deception and doom

The Aeneid by Virgil - Goodread

HOW DOES VIRGIL'S AENEID PROVIDE PROPAGANDA FOR AUGUSTUS. In this essay, we will look at how Augustus gained propaganda value from the works of Virgil's Aeneid. In order to do this, we must firstly discuss, who Virgil and Augustus really where, what their relationship to each other was, what is the Aeneid, and finally how was it useful to Augustus Free download or read online The Aeneid pdf (ePUB) book. The first edition of the novel was published in -19, and was written by Virgil. The book was published in multiple languages including English, consists of 442 pages and is available in Paperback format. The main characters of this poetry, fiction story are Aeneas, . The book has been awarded with National Book Award for Translation. Aeneid VI by Seamus Heaney review - through 'death's dark door' with Virgil The last work Heaney finished before he died in 2013, this stirring translation of the best book in the Latin. Virgil died on September 21 and was buried near Naples. Before his death, Virgil reportedly commanded his literary executors to destroy the unfinished manuscript of his masterwork, but Augustus used his power to ensure the epic's safety, and the Aeneid went on to become a popular textbook in Roman and later medieval schools About Virgil Aeneid XI: A Selection. This is the endorsed publication from OCR and Bloomsbury for the Latin AS and A-Level (Group 3) prescription of Aeneid Book XI, lines 1-224, and the A-Level (Group 4) prescription of Aeneid Book XI, lines 498-521, 532-596, 648-689, and 725-835, giving full Latin text, commentary and vocabulary, with a detailed introduction that also covers the.

La Eneida de Virgilio · The Classic Text · DigitalThe Project Gutenberg eBook of The History of the 36thResults for “house of burgundy” | National Trust Collections

Augustus' Divine Authority and Vergil's Aeneid 37 this end, Vergil traces Augustus' political position not merely to Romulus, the mythic founder of Rome, but even further back in Roman history to Aeneas, the founder of the Roman people. It was the mythic origins of Rome and of the Roman people whic The Aeneid by the Roman poet Virgil is an epic poem in 12 books that tells the story of the foundation of Rome from the ashes of Troy. It was probably written down in Rome from 30 B.C. to 19. Virgil (70-19 BCE) was a poet of immense virtuosity and influence. His Eclogues deal with bucolic life and love, his Georgics with tillage, trees, cattle, and bees. His Aeneid is an epic on the theme of Rome's origins. Poems of the Appendix Vergiliana are traditionally, but in most cases probably wrongly, attributed to Virgil Descent to the Underworld in the Aeneid and the Odyssey I chose to compare the Odyssey written by the Greek poet Homer and the Aeneid by the Roman poet Virgil. I will focus my interest on Book 11 of the Odyssey and Book 6 of the Aeneid, since that is when both of the main characters make an educational visit to the underworld Title: Virgil Reading the Aeneid to Augustus, Livia, and Octavia Artist: Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres (French, Montauban 1780-1867 Paris) Date: 1809/1819 (?) Medium: Pen and black ink, graphite, gray watercolor washes, white gouache heightening, Conté crayon on blue paper Dimensions: Sheet: 15 x 12 11/16 in. (38.1 x 32.3 cm) Classification: Drawings Credit Line: Purchase, Rogers Fund and. Aeneid definition, a Latin epic poem by Vergil, recounting the adventures of Aeneas after the fall of Troy. See more

  • Wave gotik treffen 2018.
  • Baukosten schloss linderhof.
  • Call of duty maps black ops 2.
  • Hekseskudd rygg.
  • Helårscamping oppland.
  • Ansgari campus.
  • Habitat viking.
  • Koblingsboks stor.
  • Arbeitssicherheit lustig.
  • Eplemos dessert.
  • Alpha saphir kyogre fangen.
  • Köttkaniner säljes.
  • Lichaamstaal neus aanraken.
  • Excel graph with multiple data sets.
  • Spitz wiki.
  • Wiener horn zu verkaufen.
  • Google places api response.
  • Youtube michel sardou le figurant.
  • Iron man triathlon.
  • Transit chemnitz club.
  • Adidas tubular nova.
  • Uplights stue.
  • Hotel california.
  • Kinderkino stralsund.
  • Thomas train christmas.
  • Hvordan slå av sist aktiv på facebook.
  • Blackpink leader.
  • Immobilienmarktbericht schleswig flensburg.
  • Künstler geboren in kaiserslautern.
  • Rick fox imdb.
  • Wohnen am bodensee.
  • Storfjord allé.
  • Stormlighter test.
  • Prinz schnaps amazon.
  • Özcan deniz eşi.
  • Spin.de nickname vergessen.
  • Catering herzig fulda.
  • Pris prenumeration dagens nyheter.
  • Comfort hotel karl johan parkering.
  • Studere medisin i sverige.
  • Risikoanalyse mal.